THE MILITARY SURVEYS OF THE HUNGARIAN KINGDOM
The book you have currently at hand treats the military topographical maps from the mid 18th century to World War II; briefly, it entitles the accomplished cartographical operations of the Hungarian Kingdom prior to the mid 18th century; furthermore, diminutive reference is given to the changes of military and civil topographical cartography in and after the 1950’s.
The sectioning of the book is based on the sequence of the surveys. The first military survey was performed in 1763, and was followed by the second, third, and fourth military surveys; the very last survey we mention was conducted between the two world wars. In 1950, a new era of military topographical mapping began due to the introduction of the Gauss–Krueger coordinate system.
Each survey is described in the same way; the chapters give information on the circumstances at the beginning of the operations; the controlling organization; the territorial extension of the works; their (geodesic or cadastral) basis; the legends; the survey sheets and the reduced (smaller scale series created on the basis of the survey scale) map series, and the preservation of the maps.
Only the most essential inserts – illustrations of the extension of the different surveys, sheet indices, and the most relevant original scaled sheets concerning the territory of Hungary – are included. The development of topography can be perfectly seen on the sheets of Keszthely town and its environment. Further attachments are added to each chapter, parts of which are subsequently or contemporary made index sheets in order to help orientation on the differently scaled sheets. The inserted maps are samples of the original surveys or the reduced map series. Some of the indices and sheets are in the property of the Vienna Kriegsarchiv, others are owned by the Map Room of the Budapest Institute and Museum of Military History; the call numbers of each map collections are accurately indicated. The inserts and the attached maps can be found on the CD-ROM compiled by Arcanum Adatbázis Ltd., and shipped along with this book. The data on the disc has been compressed into .ecw format.
At the time of the first, second, and third military surveys the cartographical mapping operations – due to the fact that earlier the Hungarian Kingdom was subject to the Habsburg Empire and later part of the Austro–Hungarian Monarchy with common ministry of military affairs – were commanded from Vienna. This is why the original maps of the fully accomplished first and second surveys are in the Map Department of the Vienna Kriegsarchiv; the Map Room of the Budapest Institute and Museum of Military History owns high quality, original sized colour copies only.
The first military survey of the territory of the Habsburg Empire was conducted between 1763 and 1787. The whole work was divided into twenty one separate surveys, which resulted a total number of 3245 (63x42 cm) scale 1:28 800 manuscript sheets. The reduced map series were made on the basis of the previously mentioned sheets (the Originalaufnahme). Among the twenty one surveys only those affecting the Hungarian Kingdom are discussed in detail, i.e. 1943 sheets of the Hungarian Kingdom (1782–1785), the Banat of Temes (1769–1772), the Grand Duchy of Transylvania (1769–1773), Croatia, Slavonien, and the Military Frontiers (1774–1784). The CD-ROM provides you with the survey’s (subsequently composed) legend and the list of officers who participated in the survey, the names of the commanding officers in charge for surveying of the sheets, and the date of the survey.
The different reduced map series of the Hungarian Kingdom, which became more widely-known only in the latest years, when their high quality coloured copies have recently been added to the collection of the Map Room of the Budapest Institute and Museum of Military History, are of special interest. Their sheet index and sample sheet can be found on the attached CD-ROM.
Most of the manuscript sheets and the reduced map series of the first military survey were classified as confidential at their time; thus they could not have influenced civil cartography considerably.
The second military survey of the Habsburg Empire was conducted between 1806 and 1869, but the survey of the Grand Duchy of Transylvania remained incomplete. There took place fourteen surveys in the entire Habsburg Empire, which produced 2142 “old” size (63x42 cm) and 1534 “new” size (52,7x52,7 cm) sheets, and several scale 1:144 000, 1:288 000, and 1:576 000 reduced map series on the basis of the original survey sheets. The Hungarian Kingdom was surveyed from 1819 to 1869 on 1112 “old” size sheets; Croatia, Slavonien, and the Croatian–Slavonien Military Frontier from 1865 to 1869 on 224 “new” size sheets. The fragmentary survey of the Grand Duchy of Transylvania took place from 1853 to 1869 summing up a total of 67 “old” size sheets.
The scale 1:144 000 map of the Habsburg Empire was the most detailed printed map ever published up to its time; unfortunately the sheets showing the territory of the Hungarian Kingdom came to light only when the whole survey has been over (1869–1881).
The contemporary legends, the data of the surveyors of the different sheets, and the exact data of survey can be found on the CD-ROM.
The Austro–Hungarian Monarchy’s third military survey, printed to unified sheets, was completed between 1869 and 1887. The scale of the coloured manuscript sheets is 1:25 000, their size is 76x56 cm. 1354 sheets of the survey, concerning the territory of the Hungarian Kingdom (including Transylvania), were finished between 1869 and 1885; 216 of the sheets depicting Transylvania, however, were added to the lot later, after a local revision (reambulation) from 1888 to 1895. The aim of the survey was to create scale 1:75 000 maps of the whole Austro–Hungarian Monarchy: the first edition of the 752 black and white sheets came to light between 1873 and 1889.
The coloured scale 1:200 000 general maps of Central-Europe first appeared between 1887 and 1916 on 265 sheets, while the scale 1:750 000 index was published on 54 sheets. The indices of the map series and versions of the sheets can be seen on the CD-ROM.
The fourth military survey of the Austro–Hungarian Monarchy was carried out from 1896 to 1914. According to the preliminary conception, the operations had been planned for a hundred years, but have been interrupted by the outbreak of World War I. The fourth survey yielded only as many as 388 scale 1:25 000 coloured manuscript sheets. As a consequence of the cancellation of the mapping works, only a region of the High Tatra, once part of the Hungarian Kingdom, was surveyed by fotogrammetrical means. During World War I, though surveying was not conducted, the publication of the already existing sheets of the third military survey, and that of the reduced and corrected versions of the map series was carried on at a high pace. Hitherto, in these years the mass production and the extensive consumption of maps appeared due to the needs of war.
When the Austro–Hungarian Monarchy was disintegrated following the war, the joint cartographical operations were over: the newly formed independent countries established their own topographical services.
The first independent Hungarian cartographical organization, the Hungarian Military Mapping Group (Magyar Katonai Térképező Csoport), came into being in 1919, the next organization to be established was the Royal Hungarian State Mapping Institute (Magyar Királyi Állami Térképészet) in 1922 (Institute of Military Cartography [Honvéd Térképészeti Intézet] after 1938). These authorities kept the scaling and the scale 1:25 000 sheets of the third military survey, but its data must have been refreshed; therefore local correction (reambulation) and later, in 1927, a new survey were conducted. Further local corrections were initiated by 1939–1940 of the sheets of the southern and eastern borders. As a result of the revisions less than fifty per cent of Hungary’s territory became surveyed. The supervised sheets were circulated in multi-colour versions while those not refreshed were issued as reprints of the third military survey in black and white editions. The results of the supervisions were transferred onto the scale 1:75 000, 1:200 000 and 1:750 000 maps as well.
In all 403 scale 1:50 000 sheets were produced of Hungary (together with the territories reattached to the country during World War II [1940–1945]). In 1943 a scale 1:500 000 aerial map was accomplished, too.
After the end of World War II the scale 1:50 000 and 1:200 000 sheets were published with the new borders of the country but other data was not updated. In 1950, Hungary implemented the use of the Gauss–Krueger coordinate system, which uses different scale-series, which partially differs from that one used in Hungary before.
On the CD-ROM there are altogether 260 items: map attachments, different versions of survey and reduced maps, index sheets, legends, and charts.
Appropriate references to the call numbers of the Map Departments of the Vienna Kriegsarchiv and those of the Map Room of the Budapest Institute and Museum of Military History can be found in the footnotes; thus, the sources can be located by researchers easily.
Translation: Balázs Lányi